The knowledge can be expressed in the various forms to the inference engine in the computers to solve the problems in context of the rule. So, in this article, we are going to discuss the two representation of procedural knowledge and declarative knowledge. The prior difference between them is that the declarative representation just specifies the knowledge but not the mechanism to implement the knowledge. On the contrary, the procedural representation provides the control information along with the knowledge.
Computers are not able to obtain and represent knowledge by their own like humans, as it is hard for the devices to interpret and represent the knowledge in the form of natural language. So, in devices like a computer, the knowledge is managed by involving given steps such as knowledge acquisition, storing, retrieval and reasoning. The steps are described below:
- Knowledge acquisition: It gathers, structures and organizes the knowledge.
- Knowledge storing: In this step, the knowledge is reposited over the computer.
- Knowledge retrieval: This step helps in fetching the knowledge when required.
- Reasoning: It provides a conclusion, inferences or explanation.
Content: Procedural Knowledge and Declarative Knowledge
|Basis for comparison||Procedural Knowledge||Declarative Knowledge|
|Basic||Includes the knowledge of how a particular thing can be accomplished.||Includes the basic knowledge about something.|
|Alternate name||Interpretive knowledge||Descriptive knowledge|
|Stated by||Direct application to the task and difficult to articulate formally.||Declarative sentences and easily articulated.|
|Popularity||Less common||Generally used|
|Ease of sharing the knowledge||Hard to communicate||Can be easily shared, copied, processed and stored.|
|Taken from||Experience, action, and subjective insight.||Artifact of some type as a principle, procedure, process and concepts.|
|Represented by||Set of rules||Production systems|
|Feature||Debugging is difficult||Validation is quite simple|
Definition of Procedural Knowledge
The Procedural knowledge is a type of knowledge where the essential control information that is required to use the information is integrated in the knowledge itself. It also used with an interpreter to employ the knowledge which follows the instructions given in the knowledge.
Let’s understand this by an example, it can include a group of logical assertions merged with a resolution theorem prover to provide an absolute program for solving problems. Here, the implied income tax of an employee salary can be thought of as a procedural knowledge as it would require a process to calculate it as given below.
So, this is how the tax of an employee is calculated by following a lengthy process instead of just collecting facts.
Definition of Declarative Knowledge
A Declarative knowledge is where only knowledge is described but not the use to which the knowledge is employed is not provided. So, in order to use this declarative knowledge, we need to add it with a program that indicates what is to be done to the knowledge and how it is to be done.
Let us understand this by the example of an employee whose ID, name, address, salary have to stored in a database where this information is fact-based does not require much effort to acquire it.
Key Differences Between Procedural and Declarative Knowledge
- When the conscious perception and conscious planning is involved in the knowledge it is known as procedural knowledge. On the contrary, in declarative knowledge is not conscious.
- Declarative knowledge is verbalized, shared, copied, processed and stored in an easy way while procedural knowledge is hard to express.
- Among procedural and declarative knowledge the declarative knowledge is more commonly used.
- Procedural knowledge is obtained from experience, action and subjective insight. As against, declarative knowledge is obtained from artifact, procedure, process and concepts.
- Procedural knowledge is process-oriented in nature whereas declarative knowledge is data-oriented.
The procedural and declarative knowledge can easily be distinguished by identifying where control information is residing and whether it is used consciously and unconsciously.