C# and C++ are the programming languages where the C++ is the descendant of the C#. However, C# is derived from C language and it has many features of C and C++, but some features are also dropped in the C#. When it comes to programmer’s productivity the C# is miles ahead from C++ and C. The major difference between the C# and C++ lies within its applications where the C# can be used to develop web as well as business applications whereas C++ is useful when the programmer wants to create something that needs a close interaction with the hardware.
Content: C# Vs C++
|Basis for comparison||C#||C++|
|Compiled into||CLR||Machine code|
|Memory is managed||Automatically||Manually|
|Use of Pointers||Not allowed||Allowed|
|Employed on||Windows platform mostly||Any of the platform|
|Applications||Console, windows, ASP.NET and mobile application.||Standalone console application.|
|Coding||Aimed for windows OS.||Is done for any platform.|
|Speed||Slower||Faster as it is lightweight language.|
Definition of C#
The programming Language C# is an object-oriented programming language which is directly related to its predecessor C++ and C. It was developed by Anders Hejlsberg in the year of 2000. The major purpose to create C# is to overcome the limitations of the java, although it has evolved through C. As java did not have cross-language interoperability, in other words, java could not be able to run a program written in one programming language with the programs generated in other programming languages. Secondly, Java does not provide full integration with windows platform.
Java has always been an adversary language for the C#. C# is the standard language of the .NET platform which uses CLI (Common Language Interface) environment to make the programs portable.
C# involves features such as automatic garbage collection, type safety, versioning support, delegates and events, web services, boxing and unboxing and data members accessibility.
Characteristics of the C#
- Compatibility: C# provides interoperation within the .NET platform languages by enforcing the common language specifications.
- Consistency: An integrated type system is supported by the C# to remove the issue of variable ranges of integer types. It considers all types as objects.
- Object-Oriented: It is entirely object-oriented where everything is an object instead of global functions, variables and constants.
- Type-safety: It incorporates several type-safe measures such as dynamically allocated objects and arrays are initialized to zero, use of uninitialized variables is not allowed, automatic range checking for the arrays, Unsafe casts are not permitted, overflow checking, etcetera.
- Versionability: Enable new version of the software modules to be compatible with the already existing applications.
- Flexibility: However, pointers are not supported by the C# but inspite of that, unsafe classes and methods can be used.
- Inter-operability: C# uses COM objects and makes a program to call out any native API.
Definition of C++
The C++ programming language was emerged in the 1980s at AT&T Bell Laboratories by Bjarne Stroustrup. This version was initially known to as “C with classes” as the C++ is object-oriented language but also supports some of the conventional primitive types. C++ was derived from C language and hold the “close to the problem” properties as well as “close to the machine” properties which are retained by C language.
The syntax of C++ resembles the C language but is completely different as compared to the C#. It is flexible and focuses on the runtime efficiency and consistent semantics.
There are several features of C++ which are discarded in the C#, for example, use of Macros, multiple inheritance, pointers, templates, typedef statement, global variables, constant member functions or parameters, default arguments, forwarded declaration of classes.
Characteristics of C++
- Portability: When we compare C++ portability with the C#, the code can be run on the machine running the native OS, but this is not the case in C#.
- Platform dependence: The C++ is platform dependent language where the programs written in an OS cannot be executed in the different OS.
- Case sensitive: The uppercase and lowercase characters are handled in a distinct manner.
- Compiler-based: C++ is said to be compiled language because it does not execute any of the code without compilation.
- Syntax-based: The rules of the programming language are strictly followed.
- Pointers: Unlike C# the C++ allow the use of pointers.
Key Differences Between C# and C++
- The C# code is first compiled to the CLR (Common Language Runtime) which is then interpreted by the .NET framework. On the contrary, the C++ compiles the code directly into machine code.
- As the C# executes on the virtual machine which automatically deals with the memory management. Conversely, C++ manually organises memory.
- C++ allows the use of pointer while in C# the pointers are less likely to be used, instead unsafe classes are practised.
- C# is majorly used in the windows environment. As against, C++ was designed for Unix based system but now can be used with any platform.
- The application of C# involves web-based, desktop and mobile applications. In contrast, the whole sole purpose of C++ is to create stand-alone console applications.
- The C++ code is faster as it does not uses heavy libraries. On the other hand, the C# is slower as it produces overheads and uses heavy libraries like java.
C++ is primarily used when the performance is the main concern of the programmer, while in C# even beginners can develop any web-based, mobile, and desktop application with ease. C# is easy to learn and a protected language in terms of causing harm to the OS, on the other hand, C++ is more open and allow the programmer to do anything with the provided syntax.