OLTP and OLAP both are the online processing systems. OLTP is a transactional processing while OLAP is an analytical processing system. OLTP is a system that manages transaction-oriented applications on the internet for example, ATM. OLAP is an online system that reports to multidimensional analytical queries like financial reporting, forecasting, etc. The basic difference between OLTP and OLAP is that OLTP is an online database modifying system, whereas, OLAP is an online database query answering system.
There are some other differences between OLTP and OLAP which I have explained using the comparison chart shown below.
Content: OLTP Vs OLAP
|Basis for Comparison||OLTP||OLAP|
|Basic||It is an online transactional system and manages database modification.||It is an online data retrieving and data analysis system.|
|Focus||Insert, Update, Delete information from the database.||Extract data for analyzing that helps in decision making.|
|Data||OLTP and its transactions are the original source of data.||Different OLTPs database becomes the source of data for OLAP.|
|Transaction||OLTP has short transactions.||OLAP has long transactions.|
|Time||The processing time of a transaction is comparatively less in OLTP.||The processing time of a transaction is comparatively more in OLAP.|
|Queries||Simpler queries.||Complex queries.|
|Normalization||Tables in OLTP database are normalized (3NF).||Tables in OLAP database are not normalized.|
|Integrity||OLTP database must maintain data integrity constraint.||OLAP database does not get frequently modified. Hence, data integrity is not affected.|
Definition of OLTP
OLTP is an Online Transaction Processing system. The main focus of OLTP system is to record the current Update, Insertion and Deletion while transaction. The OLTP queries are simpler and short and hence require less time in processing, and also requires less space.
OLTP database gets updated frequently. It may happen that a transaction in OLTP fails in middle, which may effect data integrity. So, it has to take special care of data integrity. OLTP database has normalized tables (3NF).
The best example for OLTP system is an ATM, in which using short transactions we modify the status of our account. OLTP system becomes the source of data for OLAP.
Definition of OLAP
OLAP is an Online Analytical Processing system. OLAP database stores historical data that has been inputted by OLTP. It allows a user to view different summaries of multi-dimensional data. Using OLAP, you can extract information from a large database and analyze it for decision making.
OLAP also allow a user to execute complex queries to extract multidimensional data. In OLTP even if the transaction fails in middle it will not harm data integrity as the user use OLAP system to retrieve data from a large database to analyze. Simply the user can fire the query again and extract the data for analysis.
The transaction in OLAP are long and hence take comparatively more time for processing and requires large space. The transactions in OLAP are less frequent as compared to OLTP. Even the tables in OLAP database may not be normalized. The example for OLAP is to view a financial report, or budgeting, marketing management, sales report, etc.
Key Differences Between OLTP and OLAP
- The point that distinguishes OLTP and OLAP is that OLTP is an online transaction system whereas, OLAP is an online data retrieval and analysis system.
- Online transactional data becomes the source of data for OLTP. However, the different OLTPs database becomes the source of data for OLAP.
- OLTP’s main operations are insert, update and delete whereas, OLAP’s main operation is to extract multi dimensional data for analysis.
- OLTP has short but frequent transactions whereas, OLAP has long and less frequent transaction.
- Processing time for the OLTPs transaction is more as compared to OLAP.
- OLAPs queries are more complex with respect OLTPs.
- The tables in OLTP database must be normalized (3NF) whereas, the tables in OLAP database may not be normalized.
- As OLTPs frequently executes transactions in database, in case any transaction fails in middle it may harm data’s integrity and hence it must take care of data integrity. While in OLAP the transaction is less frequent hence, it does not bother much about data integrity.
OLTP is an online data modification system while OLAP is an online historical multidimensional data retrieval system, which retrieves the data for analysis that can help in decision making. Which one to use depends upon the users requirement both works for different purpose.